The Benefits of Using Hilgard's Introduction to Psychology, 12th Edition, as a Textbook for Psychology Students
Introduction to psychology by hilgard 12th edition
Psychology is the scientific study of human behavior and mental processes. It is a fascinating field that explores questions such as: Why do we think, feel, and act the way we do? How do we learn from our experiences? How do we cope with stress, emotions, and challenges? How do we interact with others in social situations? How do we develop our personality, identity, and values?
Introduction to psychology by hilgard 12th edition
In this article, we will introduce you to the main topics, concepts, theories, and methods of psychology, based on the 12th edition of Hilgard's Introduction to Psychology, a classic textbook that has been used by millions of students around the world. We will also provide some examples, applications, and exercises to help you understand and apply psychology to your own life.
What is psychology and why study it?
Psychology is derived from the Greek words psyche, meaning soul or mind, and logos, meaning word or study. Thus, psychology literally means the study of the mind. However, psychology is more than just a study of mental phenomena. It is also a study of behavior, which refers to any observable action or reaction of an organism. Behavior can be measured, recorded, analyzed, and modified by psychological methods.
The nature and scope of psychology
Psychology is a broad discipline that covers many topics and subfields. Some of the major subfields of psychology are:
Cognitive psychology: the study of mental processes such as perception, attention, memory, thinking, language, problem-solving, decision-making, creativity, intelligence, etc.
Biological psychology: the study of the biological basis of behavior and mental processes such as genetics, hormones, neurotransmitters, brain structures, neural networks, etc.
Developmental psychology: the study of how behavior and mental processes change across the lifespan from conception to death.
Social psychology: the study of how behavior and mental processes are influenced by social factors such as groups, norms, roles, attitudes, stereotypes, prejudice, conformity, obedience, persuasion, etc.
Personality psychology: the study of the individual differences in behavior and mental processes that characterize a person's unique and consistent pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting.
Clinical psychology: the study of the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of psychological disorders such as anxiety, depression, schizophrenia, etc.
Health psychology: the study of the interactions between psychological factors and physical health and illness.
Educational psychology: the study of how people learn and teach in educational settings.
Industrial-organizational psychology: the study of how people behave and perform in work-related situations.
Sport psychology: the study of how psychological factors affect athletic performance and exercise.
These are just some examples of the many subfields of psychology. There are also many interdisciplinary fields that combine psychology with other disciplines such as neuroscience, artificial intelligence, linguistics, philosophy, anthropology, sociology, economics, etc.
The goals and methods of psychology
The main goals of psychology are to describe, explain, predict, and control behavior and mental processes. To achieve these goals, psychologists use various methods of scientific inquiry such as observation, experimentation, correlation, survey, case study, etc. These methods allow psychologists to collect data, test hypotheses, analyze results, draw conclusions, and communicate findings.
For example, suppose a psychologist wants to study the effects of music on memory. He or she might use an experimental method to randomly assign participants to either a music group or a no-music group and ask them to memorize a list of words. Then he or she might measure their recall performance after a certain period of time. By comparing the two groups, the psychologist can determine whether music has any effect on memory. Alternatively, the psychologist might use a correlational method to measure the existing relationship between music preference and memory performance among a large sample of people. By calculating the correlation coefficient, the psychologist can determine how strongly and in what direction music preference and memory performance are related.
The methods of psychology have advantages and disadvantages depending on the research question, the available resources, the ethical issues, etc. Therefore, psychologists need to be careful and critical when designing, conducting, interpreting, and evaluating their research.
The history and perspectives of psychology
Psychology has a rich and diverse history that traces back to ancient times. Some of the early philosophers who contributed to the development of psychology were Plato, Aristotle, Descartes, Locke, Hume, Kant, etc. They raised questions about the nature of the mind, the sources of knowledge, the relationship between mind and body, etc.
In the late 19th century, psychology emerged as a distinct scientific discipline from its parent disciplines of philosophy and physiology. The first laboratory of experimental psychology was founded by Wilhelm Wundt in Germany in 1879. Wundt and his followers used introspection to study the basic elements of consciousness such as sensations, feelings, images, etc. This approach was known as structuralism.
Around the same time, another school of thought emerged in the United States called functionalism. Functionalists such as William James and John Dewey focused on the functions and purposes of consciousness rather than its structure. They were interested in how people adapt to their environment and how mental processes help them survive and flourish.
In the early 20th century, two major movements challenged the dominance of structuralism and functionalism: behaviorism and psychoanalysis. Behaviorists such as John Watson and B.F. Skinner rejected introspection as a valid method and argued that psychology should only study observable behavior. They applied principles of learning such as classical conditioning and operant conditioning to explain and modify behavior. Psychoanalysts such as Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung proposed that behavior and mental processes are influenced by unconscious forces such as instincts, drives 71b2f0854b